IPv6

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One of the newest major standards on the horizon is IPv6. Although IPv6 has not officially become a standard, it is worth some overview. It is very possible that this information will change as we move closer to IPv6 as a standard, so you should use this as a guide into IPv6, not the definitive information.
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A number of books are now being published that cover in detail this emerging standard; if you are looking for more details you should refer to these books. All the RFCs available on the Internet have the raw details on how this standard is developing. However, these documents are difficult to interpret at first glance and require some commitment to going through any number of RFCs pertaining to many subjects all related to IPv6 development.
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== Introduction: Rationale for a New Version of IP ==
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Internet Protocol Version 4 is the most popular protocol in use today, although there are some questions about its capability to serve the Internet community much longer. IPv4 was finished in the 1970s and has started to show its age. The main issue surrounding IPv6 is addressing-or, the lack of addressing-because many experts believe that we are nearly out of the four billion addresses available in IPv4. Although this seems like a very large number of addresses, multiple large blocks are given to government agencies and large organizations. IPv6 could be the solution to many problems, but it is still not fully developed and is not a standard-yet!
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IP version 6 is a new IP protocol designed to replace IP version 4, the Internet protocol that is predominantly deployed and extensively used throughout the world. IPv4 has proven to be robust, easily implemented, and interoperable, and has stood the test of scaling an internetwork to a global utility the size of the Internet today. However, the initial design did not anticipate the following conditions:
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Many of the finest developers and engineering minds have been working on IPv6 since the early 1990s. Hundreds of RFCs have been written and have detailed some major areas, including expanded addressing, simplified header format, flow labeling, authentication, and privacy. 
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*Exponential growth of the Internet and the impending exhaustion of the IPv4 address space
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*Ability of Internet backbone routers to maintain large routing tables
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*Need for simpler autoconfiguration and renumbering
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*Requirement for security at the IP level
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*Need for better support for real-time delivery of data
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Expanded addressing moves us from 32-bit address to a 128-bit addressing method. It also provides newer unicast and broadcasting methods, injects hexadecimal into the IP address, and moves from using "." to using ":" as delimiters.
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== Evolution of Internet Protocol Version 6 ==
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[[IPv6#Figure: IPv6 Packet Header Format|Figure: IPv6 Packet Header Format]] shows the IPv6 packet header format.
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The original proposal for IPv6 proposed is in RFC 1752, The Recommendation for the IP Next Generation Protocol was the Simple Internet Protocol Plus (SIPP) with a larger (128 bit) address space. Following that proposal, the IETF started a working group and the first specification came in late 1995 with RFC 1883, Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification. RFC 2460, Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification obsoletes RFC 1883 and is the present standard for IPv6.  
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{| align="right" border="1"
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IPv6 quadruples the number of network address bits from 32 bits (in IPv4) to 128 bits, which provides more than enough globally unique IP addresses for every network device on the planet. The use of globally unique IPv6 addresses simplifies the mechanisms used for reachability and end-to-end security for network devices, functionality that is crucial to the applications and services that are driving the demand for the addresses.
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|align="center"|'''Guide Contents'''
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|-
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|[[Internetworking Technology Handbook# Internetworking Basics| Internetworking Basics]]<br>[[Internetworking Technology Handbook# LAN Technologies| LAN Technologies]]<br>[[ Internetworking Technology Handbook # WAN Technologies | WAN Technologies]]<br>[[ Internetworking Technology Handbook # Internet Protocols | Internet Protocols]]<br>[[ Internetworking Technology Handbook # Bridging and Switching | Bridging and Switching]]<br>[[ Internetworking Technology Handbook # Routing | Routing]]<br>[[ Internetworking Technology Handbook # Network Management | Network Management]] <br>[[ Internetworking Technology Handbook # Voice/Data Integration Technologies| Voice/Data Integration Technologies]] <br>[[ Internetworking Technology Handbook # Wireless Technologies| Wireless Technologies]] <br>[[ Internetworking Technology Handbook # Cable Access Technologies| Cable Access Technologies]] <br>[[ Internetworking Technology Handbook # Dial-up Technology| Dial-up Technology]] <br>[[ Internetworking Technology Handbook # Security Technologies| Security Technologies]] <br>[[ Internetworking Technology Handbook # Quality of Service Networking| Quality of Service Networking]] <br>[[ Internetworking Technology Handbook # Network Caching Technologies| Network Caching Technologies]] <br>[[ Internetworking Technology Handbook # IBM Network Management| IBM Network Management]] <br>[[ Internetworking Technology Handbook # Multiservice Access Technologies| Multiservice Access Technologies]]
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|}
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=====Figure: IPv6 Packet Header Format=====
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== Features and Benefits of Using IPv6 ==
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[[image:CT843201.jpg]]
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In addition to meeting the anticipated future demand for globally unique IP addresses, IPv6 provides the following benefits:  
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== Description of IPv6 Packet Header ==
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*Larger address space for global reachability and scalability
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The simplified header is 40 bits long and the format consists of Version, Class, Flow Label, Payload Length, Next Header, Hop Limit, Source Address, Destination Address, Data, and Payload fields.
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*Simplified header format for efficient packet handling
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== Hexadecimal "Hex" ==
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*Hierarchical network architecture for routing efficiency
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At its simplest, hex numbers are base 16. Decimal is base 10, counting from 0 to 9, as we do in decimal, and then adding a column to make 10. Counting in hex goes from 0 to F before adding a column.
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*Support for widely deployed routing protocols
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*Autoconfiguration and plug-and-play support
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*Enhanced support for Mobile IP and Mobile Computing Devices
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*Increased number of multicast addresses
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The characters A through F represent the decimal values of 10 through 15, as illustrated in [[IPv6#Figure: Hex Characters A Through F Represent the Numbers 10 Through 15|Figure: Hex Characters A Through F Represent the Numbers 10 Through 15]].
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Details and figures the describe IPv6 formats, simplified packet header, address types, as well as additional information is available at: http://www.cisco.com/web/solutions/netsys/ipv6/knowledgebase/index.html
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=====Figure: Hex Characters A Through F Represent the Numbers 10 Through 15=====
 
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[[image:CT843202.jpg]]
 
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Counting in hex goes as follows: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 20 21 and up, as far as you want to go.
 
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== Addressing Description ==
 
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Let's look at an example of IPv6 address. The address is an eight-part hex address separated by colons (''':'''). Each part '''n''' can equal a 16-bit number and is eight parts long, providing a 128-bit address length (16 &#42; 8 = 128),
 
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Addresses are n:n:n:n:n:n:n:n n &#61; 4 digit hexadecimal integer, 16 &#42; 8 &#61; 128 address.
 
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<br>'''1080:0:0:0:8:800:200C:417A Unicast address'''
 
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<br>'''FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:101 Multicast address'''
 
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== Broadcasting Methods ==
 
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Included in IPv6 are a number of new broadcasting methods:
 
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* Unicast
 
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* Multicast
 
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* Anycast
 
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=== Unicast ===
 
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Unicast is a communication between a single host and a single receiver. Packets sent to  a unicast address are delivered to the interface identified by that address, as seen in [[IPv6#Figure: Unicast Sends Packets to a Specified Interface|Figure: Unicast Sends Packets to a Specified Interface]].
 
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=====Figure: Unicast Sends Packets to a Specified Interface=====
 
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[[image:CT843203.jpg]]
 
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=== Multicast ===
 
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Multicast is communication between a single host and multiple receivers. Packets are sent to all interfaces identified by that address, as seen in [[IPv6#Figure: Multicast Sends Packets to a Subnet, and Defined Devices Listen for Multicast Packets|Figure: Multicast Sends Packets to a Subnet, and Defined Devices Listen for Multicast Packets]].
 
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=====Figure: Multicast Sends Packets to a Subnet, and Defined Devices Listen for Multicast Packets=====
 
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[[image:CT843204.jpg]]
 
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=== Anycast ===
 
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Packets sent to an anycast address or list of addresses are delivered to the nearest interface identified by that address. Anycast is a communication between a single sender and a list of addresses, as shown in [[IPv6#Figure: Anycast Sends Packets to Specified Interface List and Can Contain End Nodes and Routers|Figure: Anycast Sends Packets to Specified Interface List and Can Contain End Nodes and Routers]].
 
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=====Figure: Anycast Sends Packets to Specified Interface List and Can Contain End Nodes and Routers=====
 
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[[image:CT843205.jpg]]
 
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== Summary ==
 
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Some of the benefits of IPv6 seem obvious: greater addressing space, built-in QoS, and better routing performance and services. However, a number of barriers must be overcome before the implementation of IPv6. The biggest question for most of us will be what the business need is for moving from current IPv4 to IPv6. The killer app has not appeared yet, but it may be closer than we think. The second consideration is the cost-it may not have much to do with hardware replacement cost. All the larger routers have upgradable OSs IOS; the only necessity is the commitment to upgrading IOS. More likely to do with training and support of minor IP devices such as printers and network faxes, they will support the new address space. IPv6 has schemes to support old and new, however, so this may not even be a barrier. The last issue to consider is training: This will need to happen sooner or later because we all need to start thinking about 128-bit addressing based on MAC addresses in HEX. This involves all new ways of addressing and will be an uncomfortable change for many people.
 
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This conclusion may seem negative, but the greater good will overpower all the up-front issues. The issue is not whether you will have to move to IPv6, but when! We all need IPv6; the increased address space is needed for the growth of IP appliances that we are starting to hear about weekly. IP-ready cars are already shipping today. This requires mobility, which is addressed in IPv6.
 
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Of course, a number of very important features have not been discussed in this section, including QoS, mobile IP, autoconfiguration, and security. All these areas are extremely important, and until IPv6 is finished, you should keep referring to the IETF Web site for the most current information. Several new books on IPv6 also are starting to show up on bookstore shelves and should provide the deeper technical detail on address headers and full packet details.
 
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== Review Questions ==
 
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'''Q''' - ''What is the current standard?''
 
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'''A''' - IPv4.
 
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'''Q''' - ''What is the main reason for IPv6 being developed?''
 
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'''A''' - The main issue surrounding IPv6 is addressing, or the lack of addressing. Many people believe that we are nearly out of the four billion addresses available in IPv4. IPv6 could be the solution to many problems, but IPv6 is still not fully developed and is not yet a standard.
 
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'''Q''' - ''How many bits does the new expanded addressing provide?''
 
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'''A''' - The expanded addressing moves us from 32-bit address to a 128-bit addressing method.
 
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'''Q''' - ''What other benefits does expanded addressing provide?''
 
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'''A''' - It provides newer unicast and broadcasting methods. Expanded addressing also injects hexadecimal into the IP address and moves from using '''.''' to using ''':''' as delimiters.
 
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'''Q''' - ''What are the new broadcast methods included in IPv6?''
 
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'''A''' - Unicast, multicast, and anycast.
 
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'''Q''' - ''What is unicast?''
 
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'''A''' - Unicast is a communication between a single host and a single receiver.
 
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'''Q''' - ''What is multicast?''
 
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'''A''' - Multicast is communication between a single host and multiple receivers.
 
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'''Q''' - ''What is anycast?''
 
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'''A''' - Anycast is a communication between a single sender and a list of addresses.
 
== For More Information ==
== For More Information ==
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http://www-6bone.lbl.gov/6bone
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*[http://www.cisco.com/web/solutions/netsys/ipv6/knowledgebase/index.html Cisco IPv6 Knowledge Base Portal]
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*[http://www.cisco.com/web/solutions/trends/ipv6/index.html IPv6 - Cisco Systems]<br>
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www.cisco.com/ipv6
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*[http://supportforums.cisco.com/community/netpro/network-infrastructure/ipv6-transition Cisco Support Community: IPv6 Integration and Testing]
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*[http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Category:IPv6 IPv6 on DocWiki]
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http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/ipngwg-charter.html
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipv6 Wikipedia: IPv6]
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http://playground.Sun.COM:80/pub/ipng/html
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[[Category:IOS Technology Handbook]]
[[Category:IOS Technology Handbook]]
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[[Category: IPv6]]

Latest revision as of 20:50, 16 October 2012

Contents

Introduction: Rationale for a New Version of IP

IP version 6 is a new IP protocol designed to replace IP version 4, the Internet protocol that is predominantly deployed and extensively used throughout the world. IPv4 has proven to be robust, easily implemented, and interoperable, and has stood the test of scaling an internetwork to a global utility the size of the Internet today. However, the initial design did not anticipate the following conditions:

  • Exponential growth of the Internet and the impending exhaustion of the IPv4 address space
  • Ability of Internet backbone routers to maintain large routing tables
  • Need for simpler autoconfiguration and renumbering
  • Requirement for security at the IP level
  • Need for better support for real-time delivery of data

Evolution of Internet Protocol Version 6

The original proposal for IPv6 proposed is in RFC 1752, The Recommendation for the IP Next Generation Protocol was the Simple Internet Protocol Plus (SIPP) with a larger (128 bit) address space. Following that proposal, the IETF started a working group and the first specification came in late 1995 with RFC 1883, Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification. RFC 2460, Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification obsoletes RFC 1883 and is the present standard for IPv6.

IPv6 quadruples the number of network address bits from 32 bits (in IPv4) to 128 bits, which provides more than enough globally unique IP addresses for every network device on the planet. The use of globally unique IPv6 addresses simplifies the mechanisms used for reachability and end-to-end security for network devices, functionality that is crucial to the applications and services that are driving the demand for the addresses.

Features and Benefits of Using IPv6

In addition to meeting the anticipated future demand for globally unique IP addresses, IPv6 provides the following benefits:

  • Larger address space for global reachability and scalability
  • Simplified header format for efficient packet handling
  • Hierarchical network architecture for routing efficiency
  • Support for widely deployed routing protocols
  • Autoconfiguration and plug-and-play support
  • Enhanced support for Mobile IP and Mobile Computing Devices
  • Increased number of multicast addresses

Details and figures the describe IPv6 formats, simplified packet header, address types, as well as additional information is available at: http://www.cisco.com/web/solutions/netsys/ipv6/knowledgebase/index.html

For More Information

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